Ranchi, earlier named Lohardaga, came into existence after the creation of the non-regulation South - West frontier as a result of the Kol rising in 1831-32. The name of the district was changed in 1899 from Lohardaga to Ranchi.
Possibly, the area was included in the Magadh Empire during the reign of Ashoka (273-232 B.C.). With the decline of the Mauryan Empire, King Kharavels of Kalinga led on army through Jharkhand and ransacked Rajgriha and Patliputra.
During the reign of Muhammad Shah (1719 - 1748). Sar Balland Khan, the Governor of Bihar, marched against the Raja of Chotanagpur and forced his submission. Another expedition was led by Fakhruddoula, Governor of Bihar in 1731. The district seems to have remained uneventful from 1624 when Durjan Sal was released till the appearance of the British in 1772.
The district played an important role in the national freedom movement. Under the guidance of Ganesh Chandra Ghosh, Ranchi became an important center of work for the followers of the Revolutionary party. Ranchi was the venue of a meeting between Mahatma Gandhi and Sir Edward Albert Gait, Lieutenant Governor of Bihar and Orissa on 4th June and again on 22nd September, 1917 in the context of the Champaran Indigo planters’ repressive measures against the raiyats of that district.
On 5th October, 1926, a khadi exhibition was opened at Ranchi in the presence of Sri Rajendra Prasad in the local Arya Samaj Hall. The Salt Satyagraha which was launched at the behest of Mahatma Gandhi, received great response in Ranchi district. People took an active part in the subsequent events which led to the country's independence in 1947.
The 28th state of the Indian Union was brought into existence by the Bihar reorganization Act on November 15,2000- the birth anniversary of the legendary Bhagwan Birsa Munda. Jharkhand is famous for its rich mineral resources like Uranium, Mica, Bauxite, Granite, Gold, Silver, Graphite, Magnetite, Dolomite, Fireclay, Quartz, Fieldspar, Coal (32% of India), Iron, Copper (25%of India) etc. Forests and woodlands occupy more than 29% of the state which is amongst the highest in India.
Ranchi is linked to Patna, Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata & Raipur by air. Jharkhand has a domestic airport, with flight connectivity to Kolkata, Patna, Mumbai, and New Delhi.
Ranchi is linked to every important part of the country by road. Ranchi is located at the junction of National Highways 23 and 33. Extensive road network is under way to facilitate road transport and make Jharkhand accessible from any corner of the country. Buses (Birsa Khadgarha and Ratu bus stands) are available to take you to any part of the city 24/7.
Ranchi is linked to North, East, West and South by rail. The main Railway Station in Jharkhand is also located in Ranchi. South Eastern Railways connect it to other major cities like Patna, Rourkela. Another important railway station is in Hazaribagh.